How to do Harvard Style Citation - Format, Citation and Samples
Like APA, MLA, and IEEE, Harvard is also a distinct and separate citation style guide. Like other citation styles, it is commonly used by the students and researchers of humanities and sciences like social, behavioral, and natural. It is also known as parenthetical referencing and follows the author-date citation format. Working with this style, the name of the original author and the date of publication is added in the parenthesis at the end of the cited phrase or quote.
The style follows both the in-text citations and a reference list at the end of the paper. Unlike Chicago and IEEE, the Harvard citation style is comparatively simple and easy to follow as it is a lot like APA and may not include footnotes.
In this Harvard-style citation guide, we will guide you about how to format the citations and references of different sources including websites, books, journals, etc. Continue to know more about it.
What Is Harvard Citation Style?
Harvard citation is a parenthetical referencing style that follows the author and date format. The citation is added in the parenthesis at the end of the paraphrased and quoted lines and contains the surname of the author, followed by the date of publication. The whole reference is added to the references list at the end.
The references are arranged alphabetically and with the last name of the author and the date of publication. The Harvard-style paper does not have footnotes and endnotes and only the list of references is added at the end of the paper.
How to do Harvard Citation and Referencing?
Harvard citation is different from other referencing styles like APA, MLA, and Chicago style and has its own distinct structure and referencing structure. Since it is somewhat like the APA referencing style, students often get confused when working on their Harvard-style papers and assignments.
The following things are included when doing the Harvard formatting and citation.
- In-Text References
- List of References
- Website and Blogs
- Journal and Newspaper Article
- Newspaper Article on a Website or Database
- Print Magazines
- eBooks and PDFs
- Archived Content
- Conference Proceedings
- Court Cases
- Dictionary Entries
- Films, DVDs, and Videos
- Encyclopedia Articles
- Government Publications
- Lectures and Presentations
- Press Releases
- Religious Texts
All of these factors are added in the Harvard style paper and to know about them in detail, please refer to the following sections.
Harvard Style In-Text Citation
In-text references are different from the list of references. The parenthesis is added at the end of the quotes and paraphrased content, in the Harvard citation the last name of the author, year of publication, and the page number.
They are shorter than the full references in the list at the end. For example:
- Williams (2016, p. 200) explains………….
- (Williams, 2016, p. 200)
When adding the in-text, you can either add the complete in-text reference at the end of the added quote or paraphrased content. Besides, you can also add it by mentioning the last name of the author and year in the sentence.
Harvard Citation List of References
The complete list of references is added at the end of the paper and in an alphabetical format. The Harvard reference includes the last name of the author, year of publication, the title of the book, article or journal, place of publication, publisher, and page numbers of the book or journal.
- Last name, First Initial. (Year published). Title. City: Publisher, Page(s).
When finding the references for your paper or essay, make sure that they are credible and from recognized sources.
The same format is used when making the bibliography. But the bibliography will be a separate list and will be added after the page of references. The reference list includes the works used as references in the paper while in the bibliography, all the works you have consulted while research is added.
Harvard Citation for Website and Blogs
Besides books and other print material, students often use online sources like websites and blogs for research and reference. These websites could be government websites or other websites that are built to guide the students.
Harvard-style referencing for websites includes the full name of the author, as presented on the website, year of publication, the title of the article, and the web link. For example:
Similarly, for blogs, the format includes the full name of the author, date of publication, the post’s title, name of the blog, and the web link of the blog post. For example:
Harvard Citation for Books
Students often refer to and cite different books in their academic work. When citing books, make sure that you include recent works, with dates no older than five years, and those that are relevant to your work.
When adding the book references, you must know that the citation and reference for books with single, two, and multiple authors.
For a single author, follow the below format:
For books with two or more authors, the names of the authors are added in the parenthesis.
The Harvard citation for chapters is different from citing books or websites. When citing a chapter from a book, follow the following pattern:
Want to cite multiple works by the same author? When citing different works from the same author, place the citations in the dates format with the oldest date, the first. If the results are published in the same year then arrange them in alphabetical order.
For an edited book, include the author’s name, surname, and initials of the editor, book’s title, and edition number.
Harvard Citation for Newspaper and Journal Article
Students of social sciences, political science, international relations, and mass communication often newspaper articles that are relevant to their chosen paper topic. To cite them in their papers, they need to follow the citation guidelines of the format that they are following in their paper.
For Harvard citation style reference when referencing a journal, follow the following pattern:
To cite the newspaper articles in Harvard citation style, cite it in the following pattern:
Harvard Citation for a Newspaper Article on a Website or Database
Other than print newspapers, students may find some relevant newspapers on an online database or a website. To cite it in your paper, use the following citation style:
Since managing the online content versions is easier than managing print newspapers and magazines, students prefer using online digital versions over print ones.
Harvard Citation for Print Magazines
The citation and reference include the full name of the author, the year of publication, the name of the article, volume, and pages.
When doing it, follow the below pattern:
When choosing a relevant magazine for your research topic or essay, make sure that the year of publication is no older than five years. Students from the fields of social sciences and communication often find relevant research and articles in print and digital magazines.
Harvard Citation for eBooks and PDFs
eBooks and PDFs are published and recognized sources as they are credible and related to a recognized association. When citing these online books or published papers, you will need to add the name of the author, year of publication, the number of editions, the name of the publisher, and the weblink.
Use the following pattern:
The pattern is followed for the PDFs and eBooks that the students cite and refer to in their papers and essays.
Harvard Citation for Archived Content
Archived content and information is the previous information about past events and incidents. The archived information is managed and saved by organizations and institutes like universities, government organizations, libraries, and historical societies. The records could include artifacts like historical diaries, manuscripts, letters, and other important records.
The pattern to follow when citing archived content or information is given below:
Unlike books, published papers, and research that need to be no older than five to eight years, archived information could be older. Since this information is archived, it is old and from the past. Students who are studying history and social sciences often quote and cite this archived material in their papers and other work.
Harvard Citation for Artwork
Artwork includes things like paintings, statues, photographs, and other visual art. Students rarely cite this kind of literature or work in their work but sometimes they do need to refer to them to clarify their main theme. Usually, students studying art and literature refer to them to explain their work and prove their point.
To cite artwork, use the below pattern:
When citing the work, the full name of the artist, the year in which the work was created, the medium or type of the work like oil painting, sculpture, and other kinds of artwork, the place where it was displayed, and the gallery or museum.
Harvard Citation for Broadcast
How to cite something that you heard on the radio or television broadcast? There is a way to cite that also. Students who are studying subjects like social history, mass communication, history, and international relations find many things on radio and television broadcasts that they like to cite in their papers.
For them, the Harvard referencing style has defined a set pattern for it also.
The reference and citation include the name of the show, the year of its broadcast, the type of program, whether it is a radio or television program, the channel number, and the broadcaster.
Harvard Citation for Conference Proceedings
Conference proceedings are the presentations and academic papers that are created for a specific meeting or conference. These papers are afterward used by the attendees as references in their papers and essays. These papers have all the information on the conference and the meeting and often serve as the core informative content.
These proceedings could either be published or non-published. To cite a published conference proceeding, use the below format:
Sometimes the cited conference proceeding is unpublished and is recorded or saved in a print version. To cite it, use the following pattern:
These conference proceedings are very helpful for the students and attendees of the conference as they could refer back to them in case they are writing a relevant paper or work.
Harvard Citation for Court Cases
How to cite a court proceeding and a case? If you are studying law and looking to learn about the Harvard citation format for it then we have explained it here in detail. Court proceedings and case hearings are used as examples and research evidence for the students and researchers.
To cite a case proceeding or hearing in the Harvard style, follow the below format:
The format is the same for all court cases.
Harvard Citation for Dictionary Entries
Dictionaries could be either online or in print versions. Dictionaries are used for reference for difficult words. For print dictionaries, use the below structure:
Besides print, online dictionaries are also used for several references. For an online dictionary entry, use the below pattern:
These dictionary entries are used to explain difficult terms and phrases and help the readers understand everything clearly and with details.
Harvard Citation for Films, DVDs and Videos
Films, DVDs, and videos are used as references by the students learning filmmaking and directions. Since they need to understand a lot of things about how a film is made and how its different aspects are monitored and directed.
When citing a film or any other video, use the below format:
When adding any film, make sure that it is relevant and you have used the right format to cite and refer to it.
Harvard Citation for Emails
Researchers usually add these emails when they want to add something very personal or information that is available through email only.
To cite such information, use the below reference pattern:
The formatting style for emails is quite simple as it only includes the sender’s name, the year when the email was sent, and the subject of the email.
Harvard Citation for Encyclopedia Articles
An encyclopedia is an extensive collection of books that provides in-depth and extensive information on a variety of subjects and topics. Usually, encyclopedias are arranged in alphabetical order and arrangement.
To cite an article in an encyclopedia, use the below citation format:
The format could be used for all the subjects and topics of the articles.
Harvard Citation for Government Publications
Government publications and papers are the official documents that are saved, managed, and issued by government bodies like local, federal, offices, and subdivisions. These documents may be used by the researchers, lawmakers, and students of law to refer to certain official laws or policies.
To cite such a document, use the below citation format:
Using this style, you could cite different official publications and documents.
Harvard Citation for Interviews
When citing an interview in a Harvard style paper, follow the below pattern:
The style is the same for all interviews and you can use it for as many interviews as you would add to your paper.
Harvard Citation for Patents
A patent is an exclusive right given for an invention or an idea for a certain period of time. During that time, the rights holder could sue the person or an organization that would use the idea or invention without permission. Citing a patent is important if the researcher does not want to get into grave trouble.
When citing a patent, follow the below structure:
The format is used for all the patents that are to be added in a Harvard-style paper.
Harvard Citation for Podcasts
A podcast is a digital file that anyone could download on his phone or computer. These files are usually available online and you can download them through many audio mediums. Students use these podcast recordings and audio files for several research purposes.
When citing a podcast, follow the following pattern and style:
Citing podcasts is an unusual practice but when doing this in a Harvard-style paper, you can follow the described pattern.
Harvard Citation for Lectures and Presentations
Students studying in colleges and universities often cite their teachers’ lectures and class presentations in their works. Since these lectures and class presentations are probably the most closely related to the main topic, students want to cite them in their papers and essays.
To cite them, use the following style:
Citing these lectures also shows how attentive a student was in class and leaves a good impression on the teacher.
Harvard Citation for Press Releases
Press releases are written for print and digital mediums and serve as the point of contact between the general audience and the company.
When citing a print press release, follow the below citation pattern:
Other than print, press releases are present on digital platforms also have press releases. Companies usually have a dedicated page that features their press release. To cite and refer to it, write in the following pattern:
Adding press releases into your paper increases its credibility and weightage.
Harvard Citation for Religious Texts
Students majoring in religious studies cite and refer to religious texts and books to back and prove their claims. When doing so, follow the below pattern:
Using the correct formatting style is important when citing any source and this includes religious texts also.
Harvard Citation for Reports
Citing reports add to the credibility of the paper and reflect the depth of the study and research of the study.
To cite a report in your paper, follow the following format:
Citing different reports is a great way of proving your claims and points in your paper.
Harvard Citation for Software
Citing software in various academic papers of the students studying computer science and software engineering. They study this software as part of their studies and this is why it is important for them to understand everything
When citing software, use the below pattern:
Harvard citation is somewhat different from other kinds of citation styles. This is why it could be difficult for the students to memorize the differences. Download the following sample for quick help.
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