How to Cite in Chicago Style - Examples and Tips
A Chicago manual is different from APA and MLA. There are different citation styles that have different structures and styles and learning about them helps you in many ways. It was introduced by Kate L. Turabian who was an educator by profession.
She wrote A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations, which is based on The Chicago Manual of Style, the citation and referencing style guide published by the University of Chicago Press.
The Turabian style manual is named after her as she wrote the work to help high school and above students to format their academic work like research papers, dissertations, and theses according to it.
The Chicago manual is for the publishers, professional researchers, and scholars. It teaches them how they could structure their papers and dissertations according to the Chicago style. If you are here to understand this somewhat different citation style then you are in luck.
The following blog will help you understand it easily and quickly.
- What is the Chicago Style Citation?
- How to do Chicago Style Citation?
- Chicago Style Title Page
- Chicago Style Heading
- Chicago Style Quotes
- Chicago Style Citation Bibliography and References
- Chicago Style In-Text Citation
- Chicago Style Numbers and Acronyms
- Chicago Style Footnote Citation
- Chicago Style Citation Example
- Chicago Style Citation Maker
What is the Chicago Style Writing Style?
The Chicago Manual of Style citation is published by the University of Chicago Press. It has complete and detailed instructions about how to structure and style your research papers and publications. It includes guidelines for citation, content formatting, and how to quote other work in your paper.
Common Chicago format paper guidelines are given below:
- 12 pt. standard font size
- Times New Roman font style
- Double spaced text
- 1-inch margins on all four sides of the paper
- New paragraphs ½ inch indented
- Page numbers either placed at the top right or bottom center
How to do Chicago Style Citation?
When formatting in the Chicago style, you will need to take care of a number of things. Since it is different from an APA and MLA style and includes footnotes and endnotes, students often find it difficult and challenging to understand. However, with diligence, you can understand and learn how to do it properly.
For a complete and detailed explanation, refer to the following sections:
- Title Page or Cover Page
- Paragraph Format
- Citation and References
- In-Text Citation
- Chicago Format Sample
Chicago Style Title Page
Unlike APA style paper, a Chicago style paper does not need a proper title page. Usually, adding the main essay title at the start of the first page. However, if your teachers ask you to add one then you can follow the Chicago or Turabian format guidelines for it.
Write the title page in the same font as the entire paper. Align the entire text in the center and add double spaces between them. If your essay has a subtitle, other than the main title, then end the main title with a colon and add the subtitle below it. Bold both the title and subtitle and keep the same font size.
To add the title and subtitle of the paper, move about 1/3 down the page and about 2/3 down the page to add other additional information. This information may include your name, your class roll number, the course title, and the date of submission.
The title page will not have a page number and the page numbering will start from the second page.
Chicago Style Heading
Use capitalization for all the headings. If your paper has different levels of heading like the main chapters, sections and subheadings then make it obvious for the readers. However, make sure that you use the same style and font for all the same level headings. For example, all the main headings should have the same style and the sections and subheadings should have the same style and size.
To make it simple, use a one or two-point larger font style for the chapter headings, bold for the section headings, and italics for subsection headings.
Chicago Style Quotes
Blockquotes are added in the Chicago style paper. These block quotes do not use quotation marks and both prose quotations having five or more than five lines and poetry quotations of two or more than two lines are presented in block quotes form.
Instead of the quotation marks, a blank line is added to distinguish it from the other text of the paper. Chicago style block quotes are indented and single-spaced, unlike the rest of the text.
Chicago Style Citation Bibliography and References
Chicago references and bibliography lists are not as double-spaced as the other text. Instead, you will need to leave a blank line between the entries. In case any entry continues to the next line then the next line will be ½ inch indented.
If you want to create an annotated bibliography, you will follow the same formatting style as for the bibliography. However, the annotation under each source will be indented and double-spaced.
Chicago Style Annotated Bibliography Example:
Battle, Ken. "Child Poverty: The Evolution and Impact of Child Benefits." In A Question of Commitment: Children's Rights in Canada, edited by Katherine Covell and Howe, R. Brian, 21-44. Waterloo, ON: Wilfrid Laurier University Press, 2007.
Ken Battle draws on a close study of government documents, as well as his own research as an extensively-published policy analyst, to explain Canadian child benefit programs. He outlines some fundamental assumptions supporting the belief that all society members should contribute to the upbringing of children. His comparison of child poverty rates in a number of countries is a useful wake-up to anyone assuming Canadian society is doing a good job of protecting children. Battle pays particular attention to the National Child Benefit (NCB), arguing that it did not deserve to be criticized by politicians and journalists. He outlines the NCB’s development, costs, and benefits, and laments that the Conservative government scaled it back in favor of the inferior Universal Child Care Benefit (UCCB). However, he relies too heavily on his own work; he is the sole or primary author of almost half the sources in his bibliography. He could make this work stronger by drawing from others' perspectives and analyses. However, Battle does offer a valuable source for this essay, because the chapter provides a concise overview of government-funded assistance currently available to parents. This offers context for analyzing the scope and financial reality of child poverty in Canada.
Below, we have added an explanation about how to make references to different sources.
For Papers and Assignments:
For Audio Sources:
For Chicago Style Film Citation:
Chapters in an Edited Book:
For Chicago Style Book Citation:
For Books with Two Writers:
Chicago Style Citation for Multiple Authors:
For an Edited Book or Work:
For Books with No Date of Publication:
For Multiple Books by the Same Writer:
For Works with Multiple Volumes:
For a Translated Work:
For an Edited Translation Work:
For a Work of an Organization:
For Government Publications and Works:
For Government Reports:
For the Print Conference Papers:
For an Online Conference Paper:
For the Conference Proceedings:
For the Dataset Repository:
For the Deposit Record of the Dataset:
For the Dataset Description Article:
For a Chapter in an Electronic Book:
For an e-Journal from a Full-Text Database:
For Online Chicago Style Journal Citation:
For the Image Reproduced in a Book:
For the Image from a Database:
For an Online Image:
For an Original Image or Work of Art:
For a Book Image:
For a Book Chapter Image:
For a Newspaper Image:
For Online Documents:
For Government Publication Document:
For Chicago Style Citation Website:
For a Blog Entry:
For Analytics report:
Chicago Style Citation for Journal Article:
For a Reported Case:
For Print Newspaper Article:
For a Full-Text Newspaper Article:
For an Online Newspaper Article:
For Podcast References:
For an LMS Podcast Lecture:
For a Radio Programme Podcast:
For a Television Program Podcast:
For Social Media References:
For a Blog Post:
For a Facebook Page:
For a Facebook Post:
For a Tweet on Twitter:
For a Chicago Style Citation for Movie or Video on YouTube, Vimeo etc.:
For an Instagram Post:
For an App:
For a Game:
For an Unpublished Thesis:
For a Published Thesis:
For a Full-Text Database Thesis:
Chicago Style Citation for Interview:
Published Interview in Publication: Last Name, First Name. Interview with First Name Last Name. Publication Title. Publication Information.
Published Interview in Radio/Television: Last Name, First Name. Interview with First Name Last Name. Program Title. Network, Call letters, Date Interviewed.
Unpublished Interview: Last Name, First Name. Interview by First Name Last Name. Interview Type. Location, Date Interviewed.
Chicago Style In-Text Citation
Chicago format style offers two options for citation, which are author and date version and bibliography version. In the former citation style, the name of the author and date of publication are placed in Chicago Style parenthetical citation. When using this referencing style, you can either add the name and date at the beginning of the quote or add it in the parenthesis at the end.
For Example: Williams (2016) put forward his theory to prove his point and claims. However, some fellow researchers have contradicted the idea (Johnson, 2018).
In the bibliography or notes style citation, the footnotes or endnotes are added at the end of the page. The reader is directed to them through the superscripted numbers added in the text. The footnotes or the endnotes are added at the end of the relevant word, phrase, or clause. It is added after punctuation.
However, a difference between them is that the Chicago style endnotes have a separate page, and clicking on the superscripted number in the content will take the reader to it.
Chicago Style Numbers and Acronyms
As per the Chicago format guidelines, you should not use numerals or acronyms at the beginning of the sentence. Moreover, for the numbers that are less than 100, write it in words. For example, for 90 or 95, use ‘ninety’ and ‘ninety-five’.
Similarly, for the acronyms, use their full form the first time when you use it in the paper. Afterward, you can refer to the acronym. For example, The American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU).
Chicago Style Footnote Citation
How to do Chicago Style footnote? Footnotes are placed at the bottom of each page and in the same font size as all the text. Usually, it is added with a specific word, name, or phrase. Clicking on the superscript number takes the reader to the bottom of the page.
To create the footnote, use Word’s automatic footnotes function.
Chicago Style Citation Example
Chicago format paper will help you understand how to format and write a Chicago format paper successfully.
Chicago Style Sample
Chicago Style Citation Maker
Can I use an automatic citation maker for my Chicago format references? Yes, you can but you will need to be careful that it has added all the details in it. Usually, these citation format makers may not be as effective as students consider them to be. When using it, make sure that you check them thoroughly before adding them to your paper.
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