How to Cite in AMA Style Citation - Format and Examples
AMA style, the short and abbreviated form of the American Medical Association. The style is written by the Journal of the American Medical Association and published by the Oxford University Press. It is a commonly used citation style for the publication of the journals published and issued in the Journal of Medical Association. Other than this, there are other citation styles also that are used by different subjects and fields of study.
The style is different from APA and MLA and unlike them, it follows the numerical referencing and citation style. The number is superscript and the number is followed by the complete reference in the list of references. The system is not as specific as some other citation styles but most of the medical journals and publications follow the AMA citation style.
Since there are many citation styles, especially the ones dealing with medical and technical subjects and topics, that follow the numerical referencing style, it becomes difficult to differentiate between them. This guide will help you identify the core differences between AMA and other citation styles.
What is an AMA Style Citation?
AMA style is most commonly used by the journals and publications of medical organizations. Besides AMA, NLM and AAA styles are also specifically developed to guide the publishers and editors of medical journals. The citation follows the numerical system in which a superscripted number is added with the direct quote or the paraphrased content in the paper. On clicking the superscripted number, the reader is directed to the full list of references at the end.
Besides the in-text citation, the list of references is also arranged in numerical order, which is unlike other citation styles including APA, MLA, and Chicago. What makes it different from other citation styles? There are a number of ways that make it different from other styles. Some of the key differences between AMA and other citation styles are given below:
- The American Psychological Association (APA) is an accepted and standard citation style that uses the last name of the author and the year of publication in the parenthesis. The citation style is commonly used by students and researchers of the social and behavioral sciences.
- The Modern Language Association (MLA) is used by the subjects of humanities and liberal arts. The citation style focuses on using and mentioning the author’s name and the page number in the citation.
- Like AMA, IEEE also uses numbered citation and reference lists but they have distinct differences that make them different from other styles.
How to do AMA Style Citation and Referencing?
How to cite in the AMA style properly? Many students find it difficult to cite in this referencing style as it may look similar to other styles like IEEE. To help them, we have prepared an AMA-style guide that will explain everything in detail and in simple terms.
Unlike APA, MLA, and Chicago citation styles, AMA-style citations use a numerical system of citation. When citing and formatting your paper in AMA style, make sure that you remember the following AMA style paper guidelines:
- Keep a one-inch margin all around the page. Except, keep the right margin unjustified
- All the main content of the paper will be double spaced while the title, headings in the paper, abstract, references, blockquotes and figures, and tables that are added to the paper
- The preferred font style is Times New Romans while the font size is 12 pt.
- Half inch indentation is added with every new paragraph
- Place the title of your paper at the top left of the page’s header
- The citation is identified with a superscripted number that extends into a full reference
- The reference list is arranged in numbers and is added at the end of the paper
- The paper could be written with or without a title page
AMA Style Title Page
The title page is the very first part of any paper or essay. Usually, the title page contains the full name of the student, the title of the subject and the paper, the deadline of the paper, and the name of the institution
Sometimes, the instructor tells the students not to add a separate title page. In such a case, instead of adding an entirely separate title page, add the header with details including the student’s name, the name of the instructor, the course title, and the deadline of the paper.
AMA Style In-Text Citation
Citations are added within the body of the paper. The main sections of the paper contain all the main sections, claims, explanations, and supporting claims of the paper.
When mentioning these sources or using them in your paper, it is important to credit these sources. How to credit them? By adding the in-text citations.
‘Williams has stated that the nation is moving towards industrialization and technology more rapidly than ever 1.’
Add the superscript number in front of the quoted text, facts, and ideas that have been added and discussed in the paper. What to do if more than one superscripted number? Separate them with a comma and add it as usual like below:
‘Storing latex at high heat may cause degradation,2,3 but it is difficult to keep materials cool in a desert environment.’
A superscripted number is added after the cited quote or idea. The number directs the reader to the complete citation in the reference list.
AMA Style Reference Page
Like the IEEE style, the AMA style of referencing follows the numerical or numbering system as all the sources are numbered in the list of references. However, the citation style has different formats and designs for different sources like books, websites, and journals.
To have complete knowledge about how to make references for these different sources, refer to the below sections:
For a Print Book: Author AA. Title of Work. Location: Publisher; Year: Page-Page.
Goldberg L, Elliot DL. Exercise for Prevention and Treatment of Illness. Philadelphia, PA: FA Davis Co; 1994.
For a Book’s Chapter: Chapter Author AA. Title of chapter. In: Editor AA, ed. Title of Work. Location: Publisher; Year: Page-Page.
Gamble VN. On becoming a physician: a dream not deferred. In: White EC, ed. The Black Women's Health Book: Speaking for Ourselves. Seattle, Wash: Seal Press; 1990:52-64.
For an eBook: Author AA. Title of Work. Location: Publisher; Year: Page-Page. URL. Accessed date.
Bowden F. Gone Viral: The Germs that Share Our Lives. Sydney, Australia: NewSouth; 2011.
https://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/stkate-ebooks/reader.action?docID=731512&ppg=1. Accessed May 23, 2017.
For a Chapter in an eBook: Dwyer J. Nutrient requirements and dietary assessment. In: Kasper DL, Fauci AS, Hauser SL, Longo DL, Jameson JL Loscalzo, eds. Harrison’s Principles of Internal Medicine. 19th ed. New York, NY: McGrawHill; 2015. http://accessmedicine.mhmedical.com/bookid=1130. Accessed August 23, 2017.
For a Website with the Writer: Author AA. Webpage title. Name of Website. URL. Published or Updated date. Accessed date.
Carlson SJ. Step up your activity to help lower the risk of diabetes. Mayo Clinic website.
http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/diabetes/expert-blog/lower-diabetes-risk-withactivity/bgp-20142203. Published June 4, 2015. Accessed August 20, 2017.
For a Website without a Writer: Webpage title. Name of Website. URL. Published or Updated date. Accessed date.
Protect against the respiratory syncytial virus. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. https://www.cdc.gov/features/rsv/index.html. Updated October 16, 2017. Accessed October 28, 2017.
For an Organization: Webpage title. Name of Website or Organization. URL. Published or Updated date. Accessed date.
What nurses do. College of Registered Nurses of British Columbia. https://www.crnbc.ca/ WhatNursesDo/Pages/Default.aspx. Published in 2012. Accessed September 23, 2012.
For a Government Report: Author AA. Title of Report. Location: Publisher; Date: Page-Page.
Local Government Elections Task Force. Report of the Local Government Elections Task Force. Victoria, BC: Local Government Elections Task Force; 2010:21.
For Two to Six Writers: Author AA, Author BB. Title of Work. Location: Publisher; Year: Page - Page.
Doane GH, Varcoe C. Family Nursing as Relational Inquiry: Developing Health– Promoting Practice. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; c2005:25-28.
For Seven and More Writers: Author AA, Author BB, Author CC, et al. Title of Work. Location: Publisher; Year: Page - Page.
London ML, Ladewig PW, Ball JW, et al. Maternal & Child Nursing Care. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education; c2011:101-103.
For a Book with an Editor: Editor AA, ed. Title of Work. Location: Publisher; Year: Page-Page.
Gusek JJ, Figueroa LA, eds. Mitigation of Metal Mining Influenced Water. Littleton, CO: Society for Mining, Metallurgy, and Exploration; c2009:100-105.
For a Book with Both Writer and Editor: Author AA. Title of Work. Editor AA, Editor BB, eds. Location: Publisher; Year: Page - Page.
Goodman LS, Brunton LL, Chabner B, Knollmann BC. Goodman & Gilman’s The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics. Brunton LL, ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill; 2011:99.
For a Group as an Author: Group (Acronym if applicable). Title of Work. Location: Publisher; Year.: Page-Page
WorldatWork. The WorldatWork Handbook of Compensation, Benefits & Total Rewards: A Comprehensive Guide for HR Professionals. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons; 2007:72.
For Multiple Editions: Author AA. Title of Work. Nth Ed. Location: Publisher; Year: Page-Page.
Nieswiadomy RM. Foundation of Nursing Research. 6th ed. Boston, MA: Pearson; c2012:31-33.
For Encyclopedia and Dictionary: Entry Author AA. Title of entry. In: Editor AA, ed. Title of Work. Location: Publisher; Year: Page-Page.
Pesut DJ. Change Agents and Change Agent Strategies. In: Feldman HR, ed. Nursing Leadership: A Concise Encyclopedia. New York, NY: Springer; c2008:103-105.
For Online Dictionary and Encyclopedia: Entry Author AA. Title of entry. In: Editor AA, ed. Title of Work. Name of the website. URL. Accessed date.
Maceration. In: Koren H. Illustrated Dictionary and Resource Dictionary of Environmental & Occupational Health. CRCnetBASE Website. http://0-www.crcnetbase.com.innopac.lib.bcit.ca/ isbn/9781420032239. Accessed September 18, 2012.
For Article in an Electronic Journal: Author AA. Title of the article. Abbreviated Journal Title. Year; Volume(Issue): Page-Page. URL. Published or Last updated date. Accessed date.
Davidson Baer E. Key ideas in nursing’s first century. Am J Nursing. 2012;112(5):48- 55. http:// journals.lww.com/ajnonline/Abstract/2012/05000/Key_Ideas_in_ Nursing_s_First_Century.27.aspx Published May 2012. Accessed September 23, 2012.
For an Electronic Journal Article with DOI: Author AA, Author BB. Title of the article. Abbreviated Journal Title. Year; Volume(Issue): Page-Page. doi:xx.xxxx/xxxxxxxxxxxxxx.
Watts T. Initiating end-of-life care pathways: A discussion paper. J Adv Nursing. 2012;68(10):2359-2370. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2648.2011.05924.x.
For Magazine or Newspaper Article: Author AA. Title of the article. Title of Magazine or Newspaper. Month Day, Year: Page - Page.
Masoud T. The tyrant’s brutal legacy. Newsweek. July 2, 2012:34-39
Online Magazine or Newspaper Article: Author AA. Title of Article. Title of Magazine or Newspaper. Month Day, Year: Page - Page. URL. Published date or Last updated date. Accessed date
Galloway G. Liberals go on the attack after )Harper says they stand for nothing. The Globe and Mail. September 19, 2012. http://www.theglobeandmail.com/news/politics/ liberals-go-on-the-attack-after-harper-says-they-stand-for-nothing/article4554914/. Updated September 19, 2012. Accessed September 19, 2012.
Magazine Article with a Single Writer: Author AA, Author BB, Author CC. Title of the article. Abbreviated Journal Title. Year; Volume(Issue): Page-Page.
Wolf ZR. Nursing practice breakdowns: Good and bad nursing. Medsurg Nursing. 2012;21(1):16-36.
The same format is to be followed for up to six writers.
For Seven or more than Seven Writers: Author AA, Author BB, Author CC, et al. Title of article. Abbreviated Journal Title. Year; Volume (Issue): Page-Page.
Bond AE, Eshah NF, Bani-Khalid M, et al. Who uses nursing theory? A univariate descriptive analysis of five years’ research articles. Scand J Caring Sci. 2011;25(2):404-409.
For an Online Report: Author AA. Title of Report. URL. Published/Updated/Revised date. Accessed date
International Monetary Fund. World economic outlook update. http://www.imf.org/ external/pubs/ft/weo/2012/update/02/. Published July 16, 2012. Accessed September 19, 2012.
For Proceedings and Conference Papers: Presenter AA. Title of paper or presentation. Paper or Poster presented at: Conference Title; Month Day, Year; Location. URL. Accessed date.
Cronin C. Memoing: An active tool in research. Poster presented at: RCN Annual International Nursing Research Conference; April 23, 2012. London, UK. http://www.rcn.org.uk/_data/assets/pdf_file/0005/445802/Research2012Mo01.pdf. Accessed September 23, 2012.
For Thesis and Dissertation: Author AA. Title of Work. [dissertation or master’s thesis]. Location: Institution; Year: Page-Page.
Taylor RL. Downsizing the Dial: The Reinvention of Private Radio in Canada. [PhD thesis]. Burnaby, BC: British Columbia Institute of Technology; 2008.
AMA Style Paper Guide and Example
To help you get a clear and complete idea of how to format your AMA style paper successfully, we have added a sample paper below.
AMA Style Paper Example
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