How to Cite in Oxford Referencing Style - Learn All About It
Oxford citation and referencing style are different from other citation styles and formats. Like them, it has its own conventions and citation guidelines that the writer has to follow when writing his paper.
Plagiarism is a serious offense and adding the sources carefully will help you stay safe and away from this offense. Besides papers and essays, there is a specialized form of Oxford referencing used by the students of the law field.
This blog will explain to you everything about the Oxford style referencing and how to use it to cite different sources.
What Is Oxford Referencing?
The Oxford referencing style is developed and introduced by the University of Oxford for the students of law and other disciples. Like other citation styles, Oxford citation also has different guidelines and rules, that you must learn before formatting your paper accordingly.
The respective referencing style is also known as the documentary-note style referencing. The Oxford citation has two parts; the footnotes and the reference list. The footnotes are added at the end of the page while the list of references is added at the end of the paper.
Since it also has footnotes, it is a bit like the Chicago referencing style. But other than that, it is a different style and different format for different types of sources.
In the below sections, we have discussed and explained all the aspects of the Oxford referencing format.
How to Cite in Oxford Referencing Style?
When writing an Oxford-style paper, the student adds the references in both ways including the footnotes and list of references. All the sources like quotes, phrases, and ideas must accompany a citation. Doing so will make sure that the student has acknowledged the actual writers. As well as knows the work from where the quote or the idea has been taken.
In the Oxford-style referencing format, a superscripted number is added in the content where you quote the work. Afterward, the same superscripted number is used and added at the bottom of the page. Clicking on the superscript number in the content will take the reader to the bottom of the page.
These details include the number of the page from where the respective quote or citation has been taken. In some cases, the definition and explanation of the difficult terms and words are also added in these footnotes.
We have explained the different formats in the upcoming sections.
Oxford Citation Style Rules and Guidelines
Like other citation styles, Oxford citation also has some set guidelines. These are meant to guide the students when writing their papers and essays in Oxford citation style. These guidelines are different from other styles. And to make sure that you earn a good grade, you must follow them closely.
Below are the core Oxford citation style guidelines:
- The citation must appear in the content and with a superscripted number. This superscripted number is usually added at the end of the sentence.
- The footnotes are added at the end of the page and all through the chapters. They are called endnotes if they are added at the end of the chapter.
- The bibliography is added at the end of the paper. It includes a list of works that are used either as quotes or either as a part of the reading list.
When writing your paper in the Oxford style, make sure that you follow all of these guidelines. Add all the elements carefully into your paper.
Oxford Referencing Website
Using online sources like articles, research papers and blogs, and other online documents is quite common among college and university students. We all know that reading whole books could be time-consuming and students usually do not have that much time. This is why they prefer reading online research articles and cite them in their papers and essays.
When making a footnote for an online or website source, use the following pattern:
After adding the footnote, you will need to add its bibliographic reference in the bibliography list also. However, the pattern is different from the footnote.
Other than official websites, students may get relevant sources and content on other platforms also, like social media and blogs.
For Social Media:
Before citing anything from a social account, make sure that you have checked it thoroughly to make sure that it is relevant to your topic and suitable to be added to your academic paper.
To create the footnote for a social media citation, follow the below pattern:
When creating a bibliography for your social media citation, follow the below-referencing style:
When creating a citation and bibliography for a social media source, add all the necessary and required elements to it.
Other than official websites and social media posts, students often use blogs to aid their work and write their papers. Usually, these blogs are written by expert researchers and writers and the aim of educating the students.
When adding the blog citation in your paper, make sure that you consider the following things:
- Sometimes the blog author is different from the editor, make sure that you have checked everything when adding the name
- If not evident from the name, mention the medium of the source as ‘blog post’
- Besides adding the long URLs, you can add the URL of the homepage of the website
- If the blog is not paginated, add complete information about the respective section of the blog
To make the footnote, follow the below pattern:
To create the bibliographic citation and entry of the footnote, follow the below example:
For Podcasts and Audio Files:
Audio files are used for various purposes and making citations is one of them. People studying mass and media communications, political science, and other media and social studies related subjects.
When citing a podcast or the audio files, consider and take care of the following things:
- The details added in the footnote and the bibliography are the same
- For podcasts, begin the citation with the title of the podcast or the audio file
- Include the titles of the episode and the series when citing podcasts
- Add other details like the name of the director, interviewer, or the person being interviewed, only if relevant
- Cite the URL of the homepage to avoid adding links and URLs
To make the footnote for this kind of source, follow the below pattern:
For its bibliography entry, follow the below pattern to create your entry:
For Online Videos: How to cite sources like online videos? Citing educational videos could be really helpful in many research papers and assignments. These videos are created to help students with certain topics and subjects easily and quickly.
However, citing them is different from citing a written source. When citing an online video or visual source, consider the following things:
- The details added in the footnote and the bibliography entry will be the same
- The citation will begin with the main title of the video
- When citing the vodcasts, please mention the title of the series and episode
- If possible and relevant, you can also add the names of the interviewer, director, and interviewee
- In case you want to avoid adding lengthy URLs, you can add the homepage URL only
- When adding a YouTube video, add the username of the person who published it
When making the footnote, follow the below pattern:
When making the bibliography entry of the same footnote, please follow the below pattern:
Film and DVD: Citing educational movies and DVDs for learning purposes is common in many fields. Students often do it to clarify their claims and research points. When doing it, consider the following factors:
- The details added in the footnotes and bibliography will be the same
- The citation will begin with the title of the film
- When making the citation, make sure that you have mentioned the source type also
When making the footnote and citation, follow the below pattern:
Television and Radio:
Want to cite a television or radio program? You can do it easily in your Oxford-style paper. Citing such sources is a common practice in the fields of communication and other media-related studies. To cite these sources, the student has to follow the format and the paper style in which it is written.
When doing it, keep the following elements in mind:
- Cite the television and radio program only when you have accessed the program’s live broadcast
- The details presented in the footnote and bibliography entry will be the same
- The citation entry will start with the title of the program
- If available, add the name and number of the series and episode also
The footnote and bibliography for a television and radio program is prepared in the below format:
Oxford Style Referencing Bibliography
A bibliography is different from a reference list. Where the list of references includes the list of all the works that are cited and used in the paper. A bibliography includes all the works that are either added or consulted in preparing the paper.
Usually, a bibliography is not divided into subsections. But sometimes teachers may ask you to do it and divide it into primary and secondary sources.
Like the APA and MLA style, all the bibliography entries are arranged alphabetically. The names of the authors are added by the initials of the first name after the author’s last name. The initials of the first name are added after the last name of the author.
To indicate the section from where you took the quote or phrase, add the page numbers. All the entries are indented.
In Case of Two to Three Writers
These works usually include research works and research articles. When citing works from two or three writers, the last name is separated with an ampersand. In case of adding a footnote, follow the below pattern:
In Case of More than Three Authors
In the case of multiple writers, add the last name of the first writer and add ‘et al’ after it. In such a case, format the footnote in the following style:
Organizations or Group Authors
Besides independent and individual writers, various organizations and government agencies also publish their various publications. The elements added in the footnotes and bibliography are the same. The difference is that the footnote includes the page number of the book or the journal and the superscripted number.
For the bibliography:
When there is No Writer
The footnote starts with the title of the work and moves forward with the publisher. It also includes the date on which the source is accessed, and whether it is printed or online.
When making the footnote, follow the below style:
When making the bibliography entry of such an in-text, mention the writer as ‘Anon’ or ‘Anonymous’.
Source without the Date of Publication
Is no date available with the source? Citing sources without the dates of publication becomes troublesome but there is a way of doing it.
In case the source is without the date of publication then use the copyright date. If no date is available then add n.d. instead of it.
To prepare the bibliography of the source, use the following format:
Citing the Secondary Sources
Secondary sources are those sources that the student has not read himself but are rather cited by another author. It is like the student is referring to someone who has been referred by another author.
To make the footnote of this kind of source, please follow the below format:
When making the footnote, mention both the writers. Mention the writer of the secondary source first, followed by the author who he has cited in his work.
When making the bibliography:
When creating the full bibliographic entry of the footnote, mention the secondary work that you have read only.
Citing Multiple Works by the Same Author
This is a common situation when students are working on their research papers. They come across multiple works by the same author. However, this does not mean that there is no way of citing them all.
When trying to cite such sources, along with their writer, add ‘ibid, ‘op. Cit.’ and ‘loc. Cit.’ when making the footnotes of multiple works by the same writer.
Oxford Style Book
Besides online sources, students and teachers prefer using print books as they are considered more credible than online sources. When adding or citing a print book, remember the below points:
- All the editions numbers will be added in the footnotes and bibliography, except the first edition
- If possible and relevant to the work, you will need to add the names of the editors and translators also
When making the footnotes:
When creating the bibliography, follow the following format or pattern:
These eBooks are used by students of all academic levels when they are working on their research papers.
Working to make the footnotes and bibliography of the eBooks, take care of the following things:
- Add the information like the source of the book, online eBook in this case, after the title of the book
- Rather than adding lengthy URLs, add the URL of the homepage
- Avoid adding the URL of the source if it is accessed through an online electronic database
- Add the name of the online database along with the medium
- In case the book does not have the page numbers, add other reference material like the paragraph or the title.
When preparing footnotes, follow the below format:
When making the bibliography, make it according to the below format:
Citing a Chapter in an Edited Book:
Citing a chapter in an edited book is different from citing a chapter in the first edition book. When making the citation, the number of the edition is also added along with other information. It includes the main title of the book, its author, and the date of publication.
When making the footnote of such a source, follow the following format:
When making the bibliography of the footnote, make sure that you have added all the details as per the following pattern:
Citing an Encyclopedia:
Citing encyclopedias like Wikipedia and dictionaries is not acceptable by the teachers. Therefore, when adding such sources, it is advised that you ask your teacher first. If your teacher allows then you can use the following format and pattern to make footnotes and bibliography.
For the footnotes:
Oxford Style Periodicals
Periodicals and journals are educational resources that are used by students and researchers to augment and support their research and work. However, citing the articles in these periodicals and journals is different from citing other sources as it has different citation styles.
To know how to cite these sources, refer to the following sections.
Article in a Print Journal:
Citing print journals is different from citing the ones that are available online. When making the footnote of the source, follow the below pattern:
When making the bibliography entry of the source, follow the following pattern:
The page range is added in the citation to give the pages that are used in the research work.
Article available Online or on an Online Database:
When citing an article that is available online or on an online database then you must consider the following things:
- In case the journal’s volume and issue number, cite the date of publication
- Add the medium of the article like online in brackets
- Citing the main homepage URL instead of any lengthy URLs
When making the footnote of the online article source then follow the below pattern:
When creating the bibliography of the source, follow the below pattern:
Besides online articles, on the websites, most probably, articles from the database are also used in professional and academic research work. When citing an article available on the database, remember the following things:
- Place the online database in brackets in front of the name of the database
- Including the URL OF A well-known site is not necessary
To make the footnote of such a source, follow the below pattern:
To make the bibliography of the source, follow the below pattern:
For Print Newspaper Article:
Citing a newspaper article is a great way of presenting your research and views in a solid way. This could be rare as now everyone is mostly online but it is not something that no one has ever heard of.
Therefore, when citing such a source, follow the below format:
To create the bibliography entry, make it in the following structure:
For an Online Newspaper Article:
Online databases, both local and international, contain hundreds of newspapers that you can skim through and use in your academic work like research papers and essays. These newspaper articles are credible sources that are used for multiple purposes including studies and research.
Making the footnotes of the said sources follow the below pattern and style:
After making the footnote, use the below format to create its bibliography entry:
Other than the newspaper article available on websites, these articles are available through online databases also. When trying to cite an article from an online database, make its footnote as per the below pattern:
To make its bibliography entry, format the details in the following way:
For a Review in a Periodical:
Other than originally written articles, these periodicals and journals also publish reviews about different books and research that are helpful for the students in preparing their research work. To make its footnote, follow the below pattern:
For its bibliography entry, follow the below pattern:
Oxford In-Text Referencing
Instead of in-texts, footnotes are used in the Oxford-style paper. To make the footnote, a superscript number is added with a certain word or phrase. A footnote at the bottom of the page follows it.
Oxford Style Footnotes
Footnotes are an important part of the Oxford citation style. They are different for different sources and the student will have to follow the format closely to design his paper correctly. In the above sections, we have explained how to create your footnotes for different sources and citations.
However, there are some things that you should consider when making the footnotes:
- The footnotes include the author’s name, the title of the book, the year of publication, and the page number
- Though the format of the footnotes could be different for different sources, some could be identical
- The footnotes format is different from the format of the bibliography
- The footnotes are added with a superscripted number
- Each page will have its respective footnotes that are added to the bibliography
Keeping these points in mind, you will be able to prepare the footnotes correctly and easily.
Oxford Citation Example Guide
The Oxford citation style sample added below will help and guide you to write your respective style paper in less time.
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Frequently asked questions
What is the difference between Harvard and Oxford referencing?
The main difference between these two methods is the placement of references. The Oxford method uses footnotes, while Harvard includes certain information within the text as parenthetical citations or endnotes.