Types of Research With Examples - A Detailed Guide
Research is a systematic process of gathering and analyzing data to increase the understanding of the concerned problem. It is the habit of raising questions like ‘what,’ ‘how,’ ‘why’ about a particular situation. Writing a good research paper is a daunting and challenging task.
When you start writing a research paper, you need to plan the research process. You have to create a research design, develop research questions, and decide the type of research you need to conduct. In this blog, you’ll learn about the types of research and their respective examples.
Types of Research
Research originates with a question or a problem, and it requires a complete set of plans to design the study. There are many types of research used to conduct a systematic study in a particular field of information. The types of scientific research are classified into three categories according to a specific perspective.
- Application of research studies
- Objectives in undertaking the research
- Inquiry mode employed
The words or perspectives you use to describe your research are concerned explicitly with your field or study discipline. Below you can find common types of research methodology.
Applied research deals with solving the problems concerned with the immediate solution. It is the experimental implementation of basic research. The results of applied research have immediate or direct commercial benefits. This type is further divided into three main types.
1. Qualitative Research
Qualitative research emphasizes the more profound meaning and depth of understanding of human experience. It focuses on words and meanings and aims to generate theoretically rich observations. It is closely related to descriptive research and exploratory in nature.
Qualitative research methods typically deal with non-numerical types of data. It usually refers to the data collection mechanisms related to conversational techniques. Types of qualitative methods include:
- Case study
- Focus groups
- Text analysis
- Ethnographic studies
- One-to-one interview
The qualitative methods help to understand what a specific group of people think about a particular problem. And also, why they think in that specific way.
2. Quantitative Research
Quantitative research emphasizes generalizability, objectivity, and precision. It deals with non-descriptive and numeric data. ‘What,’ ‘where,’ and ‘when’ aspects of a phenomenon are investigated by quantitative research.
Quantitative methods typically deal with numbers and quantifiable or measurable data. It creates a relationship between quantifiable data to control, predict, and explain a phenomenon. Types of quantitative methods include:
The quantitative methods help you ensure that your data is reliable, accurate, and valid. However, incorrect results may lead to an invaluable conclusion.
The qualitative and quantitative sampling methods are used in all types of research to collect data. However, some research projects involved the mixed methods of sampling where both types of sampling are combined. Mixed methods are used where the nature of research requires both numerical and descriptive data. It entirely depends on the type of research and the field of study you are researching for.
3. Mixed Research
Mixed research involves the mixing of qualitative and quantitative research methods. The nature of data is a mixture of images, words, and variables.
Pure research is also known as basic or fundamental research. It is carried out to increase the knowledge about a fundamental principle. It is an investigation of basic principles and reasons for the occurrence of a specific phenomenon, process, or event.
The results of basic research have no immediate or direct commercial benefits. However, it provides a systematic and in-depth insight into a problem and becomes the basis for the applied research.
Descriptive research attempts to describe a phenomenon, problem, or situation systematically. It aims to provide information about a particular program, services, or a general subject. It is directed towards studying the ‘what’ aspect of something. Descriptive research examples may include:
- Effects of living in a house with domestic violence
- The attitude of doctors and nurses towards death and dying
- Types of services provided by an organization or company
Correlational research establishes or explores the relationship between two or more aspects of a particular thing. It is used to discover the existing association or interdependence among the different elements of a situation. The correlational research examples include:
- Impact of bonuses on the productivity of employees
- Impact of technology on employment
- Relationship between heart attacks and stressful living
As the name suggests, it explores an area where little is known. It involves exploring a new phenomenon to give researchers a better understanding to use in a subsequent study. It is broad and rarely provides a definite answer to a specific research question. Here are some exploratory research examples:
- Effectiveness of immunization programs in controlling infectious diseases
- Effect of advertising on the sale of a product
- Impacts of child health services on infant mortality
As the name suggests, it clarifies or explains how or why there is a relationship between two aspects of a problem. It asks a ‘why’ question and tries to understand the relationship between characteristics of an event, situation, groups, or individuals. The following are some explanatory research examples:
- Why do some people adopt a habit while others don’t?
- Why do some people use a product while others don’t?
- Why does stressful living result in heart failure?
Longitudinal research involves the collection of data at multiple points in time. It may take three different forms: panel study, cohort study, and trend study. Panel study traces the same sample; cohort study looks at a subpopulation over time. And trend study analyzes the characteristics of a population over time.
Cross-sectional research is a type of descriptive and exploratory research. It is designed to look at how things are present without considering the history or trend at work.
Action research deals with finding the facts to improve the quality of a particular action.
Policy-oriented research deals with finding a solution to a specific problem. It looks at how a problem can be solved or prevented.
As the name suggests, it classifies the units in groups to explain relationships or demonstrate differences between units.
Comparative research studies find the differences and similarities between variables at all levels.
Causal research establishes the cause and effect relationship between units.
These are the types of research for both scientific and non-scientific academic fields. New processes, phenomena, events, and problems occur every day in our life. We need some practical and implementable solutions to tackle those problems. Therefore, research is required to find causes, answers, and applications for underlying issues.
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