3 Types of Argument
An argument is a series of statements or facts intended to develop or support a point of view. It is usually known as a claim backed up with evidence, facts, and examples. The way you structure the argument in your essay makes a huge difference. It will either set your paper apart or mix up with the other average papers without leaving an impact.
Recently, we created a complete guide to crafting an impressive argumentative essay from scratch. In this article, we will be focusing entirely on three core strategies and types of arguments.
Let’s learn how you can structure your essay with these 3 types of argument
Types of Argument
There are 3 types of arguments that you'll most likely encounter while writing an argumentative essay. These are:
- Classical or Aristotelian argument
- Toulmin argument
- Rogerian argument
The classical or Aristotelian model of argument is the most common type of argument. It was developed by a Greek philosopher and rhetorician, Aristotle. The goal of this model is to convince the reader about some particular point of view.
In the classical model, both sides of an argument are analyzed and one side is proven right using clear evidence. This model efficiently utilizes Ethos (authenticity) + Pathos (emotion) + Logos (logic) to persuade an audience to a side of an argument.
The classical model argumentative essay takes into account the following things:
- Introduces the main claim or the argument of the essay.
- Present the writer's perspective on the argument. The reasons something is not working and why something should be done.
- Take into account the other side of the argument. Explain them in detail and refute them with the help of evidence.
- Provide clear evidence that proves that your side of the claim is true.
- Provide the conclusion which states the benefits of accepting your claim.
The structure of the classical model is as follow
- Introduction - hook statement, brief background, thesis statement
- Body - topic sentence, facts & evidence to prove the argument
- Counter argument - opposing arguments, evidence and reasons to refute the counter arguments
- Conclusion - restating the thesis statement, call to action and concluding remarks
The Toulmin model for argumentative essays was developed by Stephen Toulmin to analyze an argument. Unlike the classical model of argument, it presents only one side of the argument. This model works well when there is no clear truth or an absolute solution to a problem.
It breaks the argument into 6 basic components:
- Claim: The main argument of the essay that the writer wants the reader to believe, accept, and act upon.
- Grounds: The grounds are the basis of the main claim. The facts and evidence upon which the claim is based.
- Warrant: The warrants are the logic and reasoning that connect the ground with the claim.
- Backing: It provides additional support for the warrant.
- Qualifier: The degree of certainty with which the writer makes a claim. It states that the claim may not be true in certain situations.
- Rebuttal: The acceptance of the counterargument against the claim where the claim may not hold true
The structure of the Toulmin model is as follow
- Introduction - thesis statement or the main claim
- Body - facts & evidence to support the argument
- Conclusion - rebuttal of counter arguments
The Rogerian model of argument was developed by Carl R. Rogers to analyze an argument while providing a middle ground between opposing parties. This model works on collaboration and cooperation. It acknowledges that an argument can be looked at from different standpoints.
The objectives of the Rogerian model are:
- To show the reader that you have listened to their viewpoints and understood the complexities of the argument.
- To define the area where the writer acknowledges the reader's claim to be valid
- Show the reader that you both share similar moral qualities and want to discover a solution that is mutually acceptable.
Each Rogerian model argumentative essay should define all of these aims.
The structure of the Rogerian model is as follow:
- Introduction - Introduction to the argument, Thesis statement
- Opposing position: An acknowledgment that there is another side of the argument.
- State your claim: Your own perspective about the argument.
- Provide a middle ground: Carefully bring both sides of the argument together and provide a compromised solution.
- Conclusion - Concluding remarks that state the benefits of a compromised solution.
You can follow any of these 3 types of argument models in your essay. These models will help you to write an argumentative essay in a well structured and persuasive way. And, if you want you can combine them together and make your own type of argument model.
Steps to Structure an Argumentative Essay
You may have a very good and controversial argument in mind with strong evidence to prove it. However, if you haven't structured your argument properly, your argument is wasted.
Here are the easy steps that can help your structure your argument effectively:
- Before you write an essay, you need to have a compelling topic. Choose a controversial and debatable topic for your argumentative essay. If you need some ideas, see our post on interesting argumentative essay topics recommended by essay experts.
Decide the type of claim that you want to make with your essay.
There are 5 types of
- Fact: Whether the argument is true or false?
- Definition: The actual meaning of the argument.
- Value: The importance of the argument
- Cause and effect: What causes the problem and what are its effects?
- Policy: What must be done?
- Decide the type of argument structure you want to follow in your essay
- Collect facts and evidence from credible sources and use them to support your claim
- Develop an outline.
- Read some argumentative essay examples, they will give you a deeper understanding of how to develop an argument in the essay.
- Begin your essay with an arguable claim or premises
- Make sure your claim is logical and develop coherently throughout the essay
- Provide a conclusion that clearly matches to the type of argument model you have followed
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